Раздел 2. Чтение
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании выберите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, впишите её в соответствующее поле внизу страницы.
Arkhip Kuinji was born in 1842 in Mariupol on the Azov Sea. His family originally came from Greece as refugees during the reign of Catherine II. His father made a living making and repairing shoes but tragically both he and Arkhip’s mother died when the boy was just six years old.
Incredible though may seem to us — this meant that Arkhip had to start work for pay. He had no opportunity whatsoever to receive any formal education. Instead he divided his time between labouring, farm work and being an assistant at the corn merchant’s shop. But this unfortunate child had a special talent: He could paint and draw exceptionally well.
Aged 18 he moved to the Port of Taganrog in 1860; at more or less the same time that Anton Chekov was born — in the very same town! For five years he worked in a studio retouching photographs. He even tried, unsuccessfully to open his own photography studio. This was at more or less the same time a Mendeleev gave the world his periodic table! But eventually Arkhip headed north to the city of St. Petersburg hoping, no doubt, to do something with his natural artistic ability.
Once there, he evidently was allowed to attend classes at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and he also benefited from some training in the workshop of the famous marine painter Ivan Aivazovsky. For the next few years he studied, painted and exhibited whenever he could. In 1873, he travelled around Europe and thoroughly studied the works of great masters. On his return, however, he began to develop his own unique style.
In his early landscape paintings he often sought to capture seasonal moods. But after 1874 he became increasingly interested in painting “light”. He obtained striking effects by using vivid colours, chiaroscuro contrasts and simple but cleverly conceived designs. He began to make spectacular paintings that greatly moved contemporary viewers.
Possibly his most famous painting, “Ukrainian Night” (1876), opened a new romantic stage in his work. He achieved such astonishing results, that people, who saw the picture for the first time at an exhibition, tried to check its back, to see if there was any special source of light. Exhibited at the Paris World Fair in 1878, “Ukrainian Night” won praise from the most eminentm French critics.
Through years of experimentation, Arkhip developed his own highly original techniques, which he applied increasingly to the treatment of subjects such as snow-covered mountains and moonlight. It is sad for us today that some of his experiments with paint led to problems of deterioration and many of his luminous canvases soon darkened.
In 1894, he accepted an invitation to become a professor of the Academy. He was very fond of teaching and his students admired him. Unfortunately his career of a professor did not last long (he was dismissed for supporting students in their protests against authorities) but he continued to teach his students privately. Later he presented the Academy with a big sum of money, the interest from which was to be used for awards to young painters. In 1909, the year before he died at the age of 68, he founded The Kuinji Society, an independent association of painters, to which he left all his pictures and property.
Starting from such a disadvanteged vackground, few have achieved as much or giveb so much pleasure to so many people as young Arkhip Mariupol.
12.Which of the following is TRUE about Arkhip Kuinji's family?
1) They came from Greece to make money.
2) They served at the court of Catherine II.
3) Arkhip's parents died when was very young.
4) They made a living selling shoes.
13.We learn from text about Arkhip's stay in Taganroh that he
1) met Anton Chekhov there.
2) could have met Mendeleev there.
3) opened his first art studio there.
4) tried ti work as a photographer.
14.When Kuinji got to St. Petersburg he
1) visited all art exhibitions.
2) began to attend classes in the Academy of Arts.
3) got interested in marine painting.
4) tried to work as a phorographer
15.After 1874 Kuinji
1) began to make pictures showing light.
2) started to paint only in light colours.
3) invented a new paint.
4) used technical effects to impress the viewers.
16.We learn about Kuinji's "Ukranian Night" that
1) a famous art critic claimed it started a new stage in painting.
2) it won a special award at the Paris Word Fair.
3) there was a hidden source of light behind it.
4) it became one of his most famous paintings.
17.Some of Kuinji's experiments were not success becouse
1) hard as he tried, he failed to capture the moonlight.
2) his style was too complicated to visualise.
3) a few of his paintings lost their original colour.
4) he used canvases of poor quality.
18.His professor's career was not a success because
1) of political reasons.
2) the authorities were against his fund meant to support students.
3) his students complained that he gave private lessons.
4) he wanted to be an independent artist.